Kaval is a type of long semi-transverse flute, an open cylindrical tube with seven playing holes on the front and one on the back, as well as four unfingered intonation holes. Shorter kavals with six playing holes are called svirajka or šupeljka. Kaval may be played by a solo player, which is more common in traditional practice, or, less frequently, it may be played by a couple of players, one of whom plays a melody line, whereas the other produces a constant drone sound. Kaval is considered to be a shepherd instrument, although it may also be used to play the melodies of folk songs, as well as traditional dances.
Kaval playing, as a performing practice, is predominantly present in Kosovo and Metohija, specifically in the Šar Mountain region, especially in Sirinićka župa and the Prizren Gora. It is used in Orthodox Serbian communities, Slavic Muslim communities (Gorani) and Albanian Muslim communities.